Durian Varieties In Malaysia


Most cultivars have arisen in cultivation but a few are special selections from the wild. The word cultivar is generally assumed to be a contraction of the words cultigen and variety, which seems more appropriate than cultivated and variety.

A durian cultivar is essentially the equivalent of the botanical variety that has been deliberately selected for desirable characteristics such as fruit shape, size, smell, color, texture, taste and tree characteristics. 


A durian clone is a descendant of a selected durian cultivar  which is produced by vegetative reproduction, usually bud-grafting or inarching. 

Note: (from Wikipedia)

Plant variety is a legal term, following the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) Convention. Recognition of a cultivated plant (a cultivar) as a "variety" in this particular sense provides its breeder with some legal protection, so-called plant breeders' rights, depending to some extent on the internal legislation of the UPOV signatory countries, such as the Plant Variety Protection Act in the US.

N.B. 

In the ASEAN region, only Singapore and Viet Nam are members of UPOV.


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Special Note For Malaysia

In Malaysia, Plant Variety Protection System is implemented under Protection of New Plant Varieties Malaysia Act 2004 (PNPV Act 2004). The Act is gazetted on 1 July 2004 and came into operation since 20 October 2008.
"Plant Breeders' Rights also called Plant Variety Protection (PVP), is a form of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs). It is an exclusive right granted to breeders of new varieties to exploit their varieties and has features that are in common with patents for industrial inventions. Both forms of protection grant to their holders a form of exclusive right to pursue innovative activity.


The PNPV Act is a pan-Malaysian by nature, which is applicable to all plants but excludes microorganisms. IPR protection of new variety is granted via a registration process based on validation of plant characteristics that distinguishes it from other varieties.

The Department of Agriculture (DOA) has been registering fruit clones since the early 1930's and was officially as to be the National Registrar of Varieties in 1994 by the Ministry of Agriculture. The responsibility in implementing the PNPV Act 2004 has been entrusted to the DOA Malaysia."
In Malaysia durian varieties registered with the Department of Agriculture since 1993 are included in

The popular D24 has an I.D. 152 and the Raja Kunyit or Musang King (D197) is listed under I.D. 150.

Since August 2012, three new durian cultivars (2 from Batu Bahat, Johor and 1 from Penang) have been submitted for registration under the new PVP act. 

On March 2013, Durian Kim Hong, owned by Tan Sue Seng from Batu Pahat, Johor was registered as D198 while Durian Bola 828, owned by Tan Eng Kong also from Batu, Pahat Johor was registered as D199.

Black Thorn or Ochee or Orchi is the latest durian entry by DOA. Mr. Leow Cheok Kiang from Penang filed for registration on 15.8.2012 and after verification by the DOA it is officially registered as D200 or Durian Hitam or Ochee on 15 June 2015. 

D200 (photo credit: Dr Durian fb)
Black Thorn or D200's flesh  is reddish orange. Its shape is round. The arils are of average size with thick flesh. The flesh is creamy, sweet with a bitter taste and of fine texture (has less fibre). Average aroma. (See photo and more info on D200 at bottom of this page.)

lack Thorn (Photo credit DurianKing.facebook



 

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Durians of different shapes, sizes and colour

The uninitiated will tell you that all durians look and smell the same. But to durian lovers, each durian is unique. No two fruits are alike. It is not uncommon to find subtle differences even among durian  fruits coming from the same tree.

Since the durian is open-pollinated, it shows many differences in fruit shape, size, smell, color, texture and taste. And these differences have contributed much to the fun and excitement durian lovers enjoy about the durian’s appeal and mystique.  It's a never-ending adventure to discover new variations of flavor, aroma, appearance, and texture found in the many durian cultivars, and from one fruit to the next. Durian lovers have their differences too. Some prefer the strong aroma and bitter durians, others prefer the milder aroma and sweeter ones..

For hundreds of years, durian-loving fruit hunters and farmers from different regions of South East Asia (where the durian originated) had diligently selected chance seeding of durian for specific desirable characteristics that they like.  It was only during the early 1930's that local scientists and durian growers began collecting and evaluating the many different durian cultivars in an attempt to select high quality durian based mainly on the fruit characteristics prefer by consumers and tree characteristics prefer by commercial durian growers.

Desirable cultivars are given coded numbers and local names. The local names usually reflect some distinctive characteristics of the cultivars, names of the durian owners or the places where the durian come from.

Durian bud-graft
Selected durian cultivars are then reproduced vegetatively by bud-grafting onto seedlings of selected root-stocks that are tolerant to diseases and drought. These superior quality durian clones are then grown on research or private farms and manage on a commercial scale.

Some durian cultivars or clones are of very good quality which are fervently sought and savoured with great passion by durian lovers who do not mind paying fantastic prices for these delicious fruits. On the other hand, the poor quality durian clones are generally the ones which give the durian the infamous "smelly", "stinky", "rotten meat", "rotten cheese", "sour milk", "old gym shoes"  labels.



Malaysia

The Malaysian Department of Agriculture began registration of local durian clones since 1934 and currently 199 clones have been officially registered. The popular Musang King was registered as D197 in 1993. The latest official entries are D198 (Kim Hong) and D199 (Bola 828) registered in March 2013 with DOA Malaysia. Both varieties are from Batu Pahat, Johor. 

Recommended Cultivars or Varieties For Commercial Planting


Three durian cultivars or clones D24, D99 (Gob kecil), D123 (Chanee) are officially recommended for commercial planting in their respective agroclimatic zones. These 3 clones are in Class I and have undergone extensive performance evaluation for at least 10 fruiting seasons.


Cultivar D24 and Agroclimatic Zones

 
 Cultivar D99 and Agroclimatic Zones


 Cultivar D123 and Agroclimatic Zones

Another 4 cultivars or  clones D145 (Beserah), D158 (Gan Yau), D159 (Monthong), and D169 (Tok Litok) have interim recommendation for commercial planting in certain areas only. They are in Class II and have also undergone extensive performance evaluation for at least 5 fruiting seasons. They have the potential to be upgraded to Class I.

D145 (Beserah) is suitable for planting in the District of Kuantan, Pahang. 
 
D158 (Gan Yau) and D159 (Monthong) are suitable for commercial planting in the Kuala Muda District in Kedah.


D169 (Tok Litok) is recommended for commercial planting in the Tanah Merah District in Kelantan

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The Malaysian Department of Agriculture has published a descriptors list of 13 durian varieties which have been registered with the department. It's in Bahasa Malaysia and you can get a free copy HERE.


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 The Malaysian Agricultural and Research Development Institute (MARDI) has released 3 hybrids durian clones which are high-yielding, of superior quality, early fruiting (5 to 6 years) and also show moderate to good tolerance to Phytophthora patch canker disease. 


MDUR78 (registered as D188) and  MDUR79 (registered as D189 ) were released in September 1991 and MDUR88 (registered as D190) was released in June 1992. Although these 3 hybrids clones are not officially recommended by the Department of Agriculture for commercial planting, they have undergone extensive evaluation by MARDI and can be considered as good quality commercial clones.

 Recommended durian varieties of Malaysia

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Besides planting the commercial clones recommended by the Department of Agriculture and MARDI, many durian farmers also planted their preferred clones which are NOT officially recommended.

In Penang, popular clones planted are D163 (Hor Lor), D164 (Ang Bak), and D175 (Ang Hea)

In Perak, D120 (Manong or KK5), D146  (Lempur Mas), D148 (Durian Paduka) and D150 (Empang Mas).

In Selangor, D160 (Buluh Bawah), D162 (Tawa) and Penu (MDUR 505).

In Johore, D168 (Mas Hajah Hasnah).

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Some of the recommended as well as popular durian cultivars or clones are described below:


  • Clone No: D 2
  • Local Name: Dato Nina
  • Date Registered: 1934
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Melaka
  • Remarks: A medium -large, erect tree which flowers well but yields poorly. It exhibits good tolerance to Phytophthora stem canker. Its average fruit size is about 1.3-1.8 kg. The fruit is mostly deformed, kidney-shaped, lopsided with small sharp spines and difficult to open despite its thin wall. Its aril is thick, bronze- yellow, firm and of excellent taste. Its deformed shape means only a few locules are present and each has 1-2 arils.
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  • Clone No: D 24
  • Local Name: sometimes referred to as "Sultan" by Singaporeans
  • Date Registered: 1937
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Bukit Merah, Perak
  • Remarks: Most popular clone. The tree is large with a broad, pyramidal canopy. It flowers regularly and bears 100-150 fruits/tree/year. Each fruit is about 1-2 kg, ellipsoid to oval shape with thick, light green rind and 1-4 arils/locule. The flesh is yellow, thick, firm, smooth, sweet and nutty with a slightly bitter taste. Unfortunately, it is extremely susceptible to Phytophthora and also exhibits physiological uneven pulp ripening.

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  • Clone No: D 98
  • Local Name: Katoi
  • Date Registered:
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Introduced from Thailand
  • Remarks: Large fruit with thick white pulp. Average flesh quality. Use as pollinater clone.


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  • Clone No: D 99
  • Local Name: Kop Kecil or Gob
  • Date Registered: 17.6.1970
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Thailand
  • Remarks: A medium-sized tree, low branching with loose canopy and it exhibits biennial bearing. A 10-15 years old  tree produces 100-130 fruits/season. This variety crops early and is tolerant to Phytophthora as well as to dry environment. This variety is a good pollinizer clone for other varieties. Fruits are usually bell-shaped to lychee shaped sometimes round with a slight depression at the apical end, lobed with distinct grooves delineating the locules. Average fruit weighs 1-1.5 kg, yellowish-brown, light green with densely packed, long spines which are recurved at the tip. The fruit peduncle is medium length and thick. The rind is uniformly thin and  easily split open exposing the very thick, creamy , sweet, nutty, firm and golden-yellow flesh. The aroma is pleasant. There are usually 2 -3 large arils/locule.
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  • Clone No: D 114
  • Local Name: Kampun
  • Date Registered:
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaysia. Probably introduced from Thailand
  • Remarks:  Use as pollinater clone.
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  • Clone No: D 123
  • Local Name: Chanee
  • Date Registered: 14.7.1971
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Pertab Singh, Rim Nursery, Sg. Buluh, Selangor
  • Remarks: Thai origin.  Big and elongated, brownish-green fruit with moderately thick rind and rough spines, brown at the tips. Peduncle short and thick. The flesh is creamy, firm, sweet, golden-yellow with a strong aroma.
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  • Clone No: D 145
  • Local Name: Tuan Mek Hijau or Beserah
  • Date Registered: 30.10.1981
  • Origin (Owner/Place): En. Khidzir Engku Ali; Beserah, Pahang
  • Remarks: It ripens green and produces moderately large, 1.3-1.5 kg, round to oval fruits. It bears less frequently but yields a good crop. The fruit rind is moderately thick and encloses 1-4 arils/locule in a single row. The flesh is thick, bright yellow, fine-textured, sweet and nutty with a good aroma. This clone is susceptible to Phytophthora.
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  • Clone No: D 146
  • Local Name: Lumpur Mas or Golden Mud
  • Date Registered: 2.4.1985
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Kg. Ulu Lumpur, Kuala Kangsar, Perak
  • Remarks:  It won the top prize at the Perak State Durian Competition in Taiping in 1983. The fruit weighs 1-3 kg, ellipsoid in shape and dark green. The aril is large with yellowish, sweet and delicious flesh.
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  • Clone No: D 148
  • Local Name: Paduka
  • Date Registered: 2.4.1985
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Kg. Gajah, Perak
  • Remarks:  Winner in the Durian State Competition held in Perak in 1985. The fruit is moderately large, round  with delicate spines. The sweet yellow flesh is of moderate quality.
   
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  • Clone No: D 150
  • Local Name: Emping Mas
  • Date Registered: 2.4.1985
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Bukit Sempeneh, Batu Kurau, Perak
  • Remarks: Won second prize in the 1985 Perak Durian competition held at Kg. Gajah. The fruit is elongated, tapering at the apical end and brownish green, with a moderately long, 9 cm peduncle. The aril is thick and large with fine-textured, yellow flesh.

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  • Clone No: D 158
  • Local Name: Kan Yau or Gaan Yaow or Tangkai Panjang
  • Date Registered: 30.6.1987
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Hj. Omar Hj. Bin, Kg. Raja, Guar Cempedak, Kedah
  • Remarks: It produces round or globose, brownish -yellow fruit with moderately thick rind and sharp, straight, dense spines. There are 3 large arils/locule. The flesh is thick, creamy, firm, sweet, golden-yellow with a pleasant aroma which is not strong.
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  • Clone No: D 159
  • Local Name: Bantal Mas or Golden Pillow or Monthong
  • Date Registered: 30.6.1987
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Hj. Ahmad Yaakob, Bukit Besar, Kota Sarang, Semut, Kedah
  • Remarks: This clone was introduced from Thailand and bears very large, elongated, oval fruit with a tapering  sharp apex, weighing 4-6 kg,. The large, yellow aril is sweet and of excellent quality.
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  • Clone No: D 160
  • Local Name: Buluh Bawa; also commonly called Teka
  • Date Registered: 30.6.1987
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Lim Hai Chua, Banting, Selangor
  • Remarks: The fruit is large, 3 kg, oval to ellipsoid, green and rough, with short, widely spaced spines. The thin rind can be easily opened. The large aril has thick, firm, brownish-yellow, creamy sweet flesh of excellent quality.

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  • Clone No: D 162
  • Local Name: Tawa
  • Date Registered: 30.6.1987
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Lim Hai Chua, Banting, Selangor
  • Remarks: The fruit is medium large, elongated, and yellowish-green.  The aril is medium large with firm, yellow-white pulp of excellent bitter  but creamy sweet taste.

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  • Clone No: D 163
  • Local Name: Horlor or Labu
  • Date Registered: 30.6.1987
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Chat Fatt Hin, Balik Pulau, Penang
  • Remarks: Won overall winner prize in the durian competition in Balik Pulau in 1987. The fruit is oval, cylindrical, medium size fruit with a thick rinds and short peduncle. The spines are closely spaced and of medium length. There are 2-3 arils/locule. The arils are moderately thick, yellow coloured and the flesh is smooth, creamy sweet and of excellent quality.
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  • Clone No: D 164
  • Local Name: Ang Bak or Red Flesh or Isi Merah
  • Date Registered: 30.6.1987
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Teoh Eng Eng, Balik Pulau, Penang
  • Remarks: It won the third prize in the durian competition at Balik Pulau in 1987. It bears medium size, elongated to ellipsoid fruit with medium length, sharp, conical, densely spaced spines; medium thick rind and short peduncle. The pulp is moderately thick, orange yellow, fine textured, creamy sweet and of excellent quality.
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  • Clone No: D 165
  • Local Name: Cheh Chee or Green Fruit
  • Date Registered: 30.6.1987
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Lee Toh Sem, Balik Pulau, Penang
  • Remarks: It produces medium size fruit, ellipsoid to round with large, long, densely spaced spines. The large aril has cream coloured, medium thick, smooth, creamy, excellent quality flesh.
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  • Clone No: D 166
  • Local Name: Balik Pulau 604
  • Date Registered: 30.6.1987
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Lee Toh Sem, Balik Pulau, Penang
  • Remarks: The fruit is medium large, oval, green  with large, short, sharp and widely spaced spines. The aril is moderately thick and the  flesh is yellow, sweet and of good quality. The tree yields well.
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  • Clone No: D 168
  • Local Name: Mas Hajah Hasmah or Mas Muar or Muar Gold
  • Date Registered: 24.5.1989
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Hjh. Hasmah Hj. Hashim. Muar, Johore
  • Remarks: The tree is moderately large and bears frequently with high yields. The fruit is round, weighs 1.4-1.6 kg, brownish green with a short peduncle. The fruit is easily open exposing 3-4 moderately large arils per locule. The pulp is orange yellow, firm, sweet and creamy. Some of the seeds are small and shrunken.

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  • Clone No: D 169
  • Local Name: Tok Litok
  • Date Registered: May 1989
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Wee Chong Beng, Tanah, Kelantan
  • Remarks: The fruit is fairly large 1.5-3 kg, ellipsoid, yellowish-green with sharp, long spines. The flesh is thick, yellow with a slight bitterness.
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  • Clone No: D 175
  • Local Name: Udang Merah or Red Prawn
  • Date Registered: 4.6.1990
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Penang 
  • Remarks: The fruit is fairly large (1.5-3 kg) elongate-ellipsoid with brown green rind and small spines. The flesh is creamy sweet, thick, soft, fine and yellow.
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  • Clone No: D 188
  • Local Name: MDUR 78
  • Date Registered: 30.8.1991 
  • Origin (Owner/Place): MARDI
  • Remarks: A hybrid of D 10 (female) X D 24 (male). A small but high yielding tree which is comparatively resistant to Phytophthora stem canker. It bears ellipsoid, yellowish  light green, 1.5-1.8 kg fruit. The flesh is thick with orange-yellow, fine textured, sweet, creamy and nutty flesh. The fruit has a shelf-life of 70 hr.
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  • Clone No: D 189
  • Local Name: MDUR 79
  • Date Registered: 30.8.1991
  • Origin (Owner/Place): MARDI
  • Remarks: A hybrid of the reciprocal cross of D 24 (female) X D 10 (male). A small tree which fruits regularly but produces average yields. It is resistant to Phytophthora stem canker. It bears oval, ellipsoidal dark green fruit that weighs 1 -1.6 kg. The aril is thick and large with orange yellow, fine textured, creamy, sweet and nutty flesh. The fruit is easily open and has a short storage life of 27 hr.
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  • Clone No: D 190
  • Local Name: MDUR 88
  • Date Registered: 1.7.1992
  • Origin (Owner/Place): MARDI
  • Remarks: This is also the reciprocal hybrid of D 24 (female) X D 10 (male).  The tree is medium large, high yielding and a consistent bearer. At 7 yrs 2 fruiting season/year have been observed. It produces oval to ellipsoid, light green or yellowish green fruit with short peduncle, straight, sharp, pyramidal, quite closely spaced spines. Each fruit averages1.5- 2 kg. The pulp is thick, golden-yellow, dry, sweet and nutty. There are on the average 3-4 arils/locule ie. with 15-20 arils per fruit. This variety has a long storage life of 78-86 hr.

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D197


  • Clone No: D 197
  • Local Name:  Raja Kunyit or Musang King or Mau Shan Wang or Cat Mountain King 
  • Date Registered: 9.12.1993
  • Origin (Owner/Place): Wee Chong Beng, Tanah Merah, Kelantan
  • Remarks: Fruit shape is oval to ellipsoid and has a light green husk. It has a thick, golden yellow flesh, very smooth with little or no fibres. Sticky and creamy texture. Sweet and bitter taste. Mau Shan Wang is the most popular variety at present.  Price S$13-15/kg. It is very interesting to note that the word "musang" here does not referred to the civet cat but rather to the region "Gua Musang" where this clone was first planted and became very popular among the farmers there. 
Credit Source: http://pvpbkkt.doa.gov.my/


Go to link

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D198 and D199

Since August 2012, three new durian cultivars (2 from Batu Bahat, Johor and 1 from Penang) have been submitted for registration under the new PVP act. 
On March 2013, Durian Kim Hong, owned by Tan Sue Seng from Batu Pahat, Johor was registered as D198 while Durian Bola 828, owned by Tan Eng Kong also from Batu, Pahat Johor was registered as D199.

Credit source -  http://pvpbkkt.doa.gov.my/
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D200

Black Thorn or Ochee or Orchi is the latest durian entry by DOA. Mr. Leow Cheok Kiang from Penang filed for registration on 15.8.2012 and after verification by the DOA it is officially registered as
D200 or Durian Hitam or Ochee on 15 June 2015. 


Black Thorn (Photo credit DurianKing.facebook
 Lindsay from Year Of The Durian describes the Black Thorn as:

Black Thorn is called Ocee (Black) in Chinese and Duri Hitam (Black Thorn) in Malay. The most logical story for the name is that this Black Thorn tends to have the dry, shriveled remnant of the flower stamen still attached to the bottom, which looks like a long, skinny black thorn.

This “thorn” is quite fragile and tends to break off during the fall or during transit, so it’s not that useful for identification purposes. But all Black Thorns have a darkish lump in the slightly concave center of the bottom where the stamen broke off.
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Source credit "Speaking Out"


 Story from Penang Tourism


The town in southern Seberang Prai on mainland Penang is where durian aficionados can find the most "Ochee" (literally meaning "black thorn" in Hokkien) durians, but even then they must move fast. Mr Leow Cheok Kiang, the "Ochee Boss" of Nibong Tebal said there were only about 5,000 durians of the species available this season. Those who want to taste it must be fast!
The "Ochee" durian has lately become the crown jewel of the king of fruits. Mr Leow’s "Ochee" was the champion durian in 2013 and 2014 in the Malaysian Agriculture Department's durian competitions. His orchard in Sungai Baong in Nibong Tebal is mostly planted with "Ochee" durian trees. He has over 600 of them, more than most durian farmers in Balik Pulau.
When Mr Leow first started planting durian trees, he had just a few ‘Ochee’ trees but when he realized that the species is good, he planted more and more. Moreover, when the durian won the best durian prize, he had customers coming all the way from Pahang looking to taste it. They don’t have it in their state and they were so curious about it. He said 8 out of 10 people who have tasted it would say it is the best.
However, Mr Leow is very proud of the durian and it was not so much because he won the top prize for two years but because he managed to get the name ‘Ochee’ registered with the Agriculture Department a few years ago. This is their Jawi durian, "Ochee" will be among the big names featured at the durian festival.

D200 - Black Thorn, Durian Hitam or Ochee (photo - Dr Durian fb)


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Description of Durian Varieties

One very informative source for the description of durian varieties is from
Boosting Durian Productivity - RIRDC Project DNT - 13A - Northern Territory Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, by Dr. T.K. Lim

See pages Chapter 2.2 - Pages 12 to 47

Link


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Bioversity International has published a booklet on "Descriptors for Durian" and you can get a free copy HERE..

http://www.bioversityinternational.org/e-library/publications/detail/descriptors-for-durian-emdurio-zibethinusem-murr/

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Read more about Malaysian Varieties HERE.. Scroll down the page

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See photos of some of the popular Malaysian durians at this facebook site......

https://www.facebook.com/Oh.Durian/photos_stream
Durian facebook