Sunday, July 10, 2011

Durian: The Perfectly Unique Tropical Fruit Crowned As "The King of Fruits"

The durian is a perfectly unique tropical fruit!

You can't compare it to a soursop or a jackfruit although both fruits have similar shape, size and husk colour to the durian. Durian is exquisite! There is no fruit in the world just like it!

 "King of Fruits" vs pretenders

The durian is totally awesome with its thorny husk and smooth and creamy yellow flesh, strongly exotic taste, and sharply aromatic smell. However, the durian is often referred to as a controversial fruit. You either love it or hate it! Thomas Fuller from The New York Times describes the durian as "a polarizing and controversial fruit"  and durian lovers "will travel terrible distances, cancel important appointments — do anything — to scarf down globs of custardy flesh from a durian".

 Stamford Raffles, the founder of Singapore, hated the durian because he found the smell of durian nauseating and gave him a headache. Many durian detractors also complained that it smells like garbage, moldy cheese, rotting fish, rotting onions, dirty socks, bile, or vomit. The odour is so strong and pervasive that public transport such as the train do not allow passengers to bring durian into its carriages. Even the best hotels prohibit guests from bringing durian into their rooms.

A warning sign on board the Singapore MRT.
 But, the proof is in the eating. What the famous 19th century naturalist, Alfred Russell Wallace, said after he ate his first durian in Borneo:

"A rich, butter-like custard highly flavored with almonds, but intermingled with wafts of flavor that call to mind cream cheese, onion sauce, brown sherry and other incongruities. The more you eat of it, the less you feel inclined to stop."

D24 - an opened durian fruit
Wallace loved it. And millions of people, especially in the southeast Asian region love this perfectly unique and engrossing tropical fruit.

I love durians. My siblings, children and grandchildren love durians. Many of my relatives, friends and neighbors love durians. We love durians! After all, durian originated from this region a long, long time ago.

Durian drawing by my 4-year-old grandson

What Malaysians say about the "King of Fruits"

(Source: New Straits Times, June 26, 1990)

Click picture to enlarge

What Other People Say About The Durian

The durian is not just limited to this region. Modern communication and travel have help spread the demand for durian all over the world.   Durian lovers can be found in Japan, Hong Kong, mainland China and Taiwan. Durian fans can also be found in Australia, USA, Canada and Europe. If you haven't tried the durian before, here's How to Love Durian On Your First Bite...

Americans love durians. Here is a cute and cool definition from a popular CBS TV series

Durian and Smells of Empire

Dr. Daniel Bender teaches humanities courses at the University of Toronto.  A historian, Dr. Bender ranges his focus on the histories of working class populations, the study of American culture, trans-nationalism, animal studies, and food history. Among his research focuses is the concept of cultural experience as visions into the non-Western world. In the following video, he talks about the smell of the durian on the social, racial, and cultural differences of the local people and outsiders who came for the "rite of passage" or "to conquer" the exotic fruit. He also expounded on the "many ways durian smell" and phrases such as "running amok"; culinary tourism or "eating the other"; and imperial colonists.


Singapore Scientists Has Complete Genetic Map of The Durian

Link to Article

Durian has about 46,000 genes and that is double the genes humans have.

The draft genome of tropical fruit durian (Durio zibethinus)

  • Nature Genetics
  • doi:10.1038/ng.3972  Published online
  • Durian (Durio zibethinus) is a Southeast Asian tropical plant known for its hefty, spine-covered fruit and sulfury and onion-like odor. Here we present a draft genome assembly of D. zibethinus, representing the third plant genus in the Malvales order and first in the Helicteroideae subfamily to be sequenced. Single-molecule sequencing and chromosome contact maps enabled assembly of the highly heterozygous durian genome at chromosome-scale resolution. Transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of sulfur-, ethylene-, and lipid-related pathways in durian fruits. We observed paleopolyploidization events shared by durian and cotton and durian-specific gene expansions in MGL (methionine γ-lyase), associated with production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). MGL and the ethylene-related gene ACS (aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) were upregulated in fruits concomitantly with their downstream metabolites (VSCs and ethylene), suggesting a potential association between ethylene biosynthesis and methionine regeneration via the Yang cycle. The durian genome provides a resource for tropical fruit biology and agronomy.

  • ==============================================

    Common sight - a durian orchard or dusun along the highway

    Durian stalls displaying durians of all shapes and sizes
    In Malaysia, the durian  is the most popular tropical fruit and is affectionately referred to as the “King of Fruits”. In the past, you have to wait patiently for the durian season to arrive to enjoy this delicious fruit. But, nowadays, you can eat durians to your hearts content almost all year round. Here are some  durian varieties that are not only popular in Malaysia but are the favourites of Singaporeans.

    10 types of durians you must know... (Source credit: mothershipsg)

    Durians of all shapes and sizes for durian lovers

    Window to the delicious world of the durian
     You can find durians on sale almost everywhere in the country: supermarkets, fresh markets, fruit stalls, shop-houses, roadside stalls, stalls-on-wheels, etc.

    Durians at a fruit stall

    A roadside durian stall at a housing estate

    Delivering fresh durian fruits for sale

    The popular D197 - Musang King displayed outside an organic food shop.

    Thornless durians? Is it real or a gimmick to attract curious buyers?
    Yes, we do have a thornless durian that looks like a 'sukun' or bread-fruit.
    It's D172 known as Durian Botak from Tangkak, Johor and registered on 17 June, 1989

    In some coffee-shops, durian sellers bring the fruit to your table while you are having your favorite kuey-teow, nasi lemak or roti canai.

    Pre-pack fresh durians at supermarkets
    Local durians are the best but you can also get some good quality durians from neighboring countries such as Thailand, Indonesia, Brunei and the Philippines. If you haven't tasted durian before, try it! You be the judge once you have tasted it. Different durian flavours.

    Fresh Frozen Durian in boxes at the supermarket
    Enjoying his durians as a dessert
    Many SE-Asian people acquired their taste for durian while young and my love affair with this unique fruit started while I was still a toddler. Most people, including westerners, who have eaten good quality durian become lifelong addicts.

    Introduction to local fruits - durian, rambutan and mangosteen

    A little boy looks perplexed among adults enjoying the durians

    Eat-all-you-can Durian Festival to help the needy
    See how Arsenal Footballers react to durian when they visited Singapore.


    International students taking the durian challenge....


    This blog is all about the durian. I like to share whatever durian information and experiences about the durian that I have gathered while I was working with the Department of Agriculture. I am not a durian expert or durian farmer. I'm just a retiree spending most of my time with my grandson and I enjoy surfing the internet during my free time. I love durians and enjoy them whenever I can. You'll too if you start it right. And I'll show you how.

    A couple of old traditional durian trees in a village
    Exquisite fruit - a delight to your senses
    Durianfest VII at Subang Jaya Summit - 22 June 2014


    Eat Durian for Charity is Back



    How To Choose A Good Durian


    Read more on the famous durians from Penang here.

      * Penang Durians

    * Durian Terms in Penang Hokkien




    Durianinfo has only one post on the home page. All information about the durian is presented in pages. 


    Please see my Pages on the top right-hand column for the various topics on durian that I have posted. I have added a new page on durian videos posted on YouTube. Some of them may not be in your spoken language(s) but they are very informative and I'm sure you'll get the message or idea in these videos. 


    You can also go to my video playlists on YouTube for more information and entertainment on durians.

    This blog is an on-going project and I will add relevant topics as the need arises. 


    Meantime, you can leave your comments and I'll be very happy to do what I can.  Do come back and visit soon.


     Last update: 19 Tuesday December 2017


    1. Dear Francis, your blog is very informative.
      I'm new in Durian plantation just bought a piece of land in Tras near Raub. I'll be planting musang king on my land.

      I have one question, is it ok to plant legumes e.g. mucuna bracteata as ground cover to that maintenance cost can be reduce? will this promote fungus growth on the durian tree trunk?

    2. Many farmers use a legume cover crop of an equal mixture of Pueraria, Centrosema and Calopogonium at about 3 to 4 kg per acre. Cover crop should be established ahead of durian planting as it will take 1 or 2 years for the cover crop to fully cover the ground. Usually the area around the durian trunk is kept free from weeds and that include the cover crop. So there should be no problem of fungus attack on the tree.

    3. Francis, Thank you for the information

      1. You're welcome. I'm writing a page on establishing a durian orchard and it should be ready for posting in a couple of days. Do come back soon. Thanks.

    4. dear francis
      congratulation for this blug.
      I live in the south of cambodia near a small town calling Kampot. I want start a durian farm but before I have need some information to start this new adventure. My personnal email adress is: . i would like than you contact me.
      thanks a lot

      1. Most of the info is in this blog..check out the page on "establishing a durian orchard" for starters. If you need more, your comments are appreciated.

    5. Dear Francis,

      Wow, what a resource! Thank you for putting this blog together.

      I am an American currently traveling southeast Asia for one year to research and write about the durian fruit. You can read more about my travels at I am looking for interesting durian stories in Malaysia and I am hoping that you can help me. Have you ever heard of the "Elephant Drop Durian?" I would appreciate any tips or advice you have for me on finding this unusual durian. Do you know of any regions of Malaysia with any special or unique durians?

      Thank you for any advice or information you can share with me. Please do not hesitate to contact me at

      1. You can read about the "Elephant Drop Durian" at this site:

    6. Hi Francis,

      My name is Azizan. I have lots of questions on durian planting, but I think the more important question for the time being is how do we make sure durian planted grow healthily. At present, I have a few durian seedlings from a few varieties to be planted in my house compound. Lots of them has been cared for one year (still in polibag), and one Musang King is already planted about 3 months ago. The height is between 2 to 3 feet. But, I see that the growth is slow. At present I am using foliar fertilizer at 21:21:21 + TE. Is it proper to use NPK now or I should stick to Urea only? The age of this young tree is assumed at 2 years old...

      1. Hi Azizan,

        When you said you have a few durian seedlings I would have to assume that you have planted them from seeds. Growing durian from seeds would not guarantee that you would get the same quality as the parent tree. The modern way is to use clonal planting materials which are produced vegetatively by bud grafting or tongue/whip grafting.

        Again I have to assume that the size of the polibags used for your seedlings are either 8x10in or 9x12in. These are the most common ones used by most people including those from plant nurseries. These bags are too small for your one-year seedlings! This could be the reason for the poor growth of your Musang King. The roots would have over-grown and got twisted in the polibags. Seedlings should have been planted when they are about 8 to 9 months old.

        Usually foliar fertilizer (such as 15:15:15)is sprayed every 2 to 4 weeks weeks. When the plants have grown bigger, compound fertilizer at the rate of 3 to 5 g per tree is used.

        Urea is seldom used for durian unless it is mixed with other straight fertilizers such as rock phosphate and muriate of potash.

    7. Thanks for responding,

      I have two groups of durian plants. Seedlings for fun and experiment, and clones which are to be transplanted. At present, I have 1 Monthong bought in Feb this year from UPM. and 2 Musang King bought about a year ago from nursery. One of this Musang King has been transplanted about 3 months ago.

      This is the one I mentioned, that it grows slowly. Today, the date of this writing, the height is about 3 feet, leaf is light green with yellowish color. It is foliar sprayed weekly with 21:21:21 + TE. And additional soil fertilizer like manure, soluble 20:20:20, CIRP, EM, and fish solution all applied alternate weekly in small quantity.

      When I transplanted this Musang King, I followed the procedure like making 2 feet x 2 feet x 2 feet hole, organic matters, CIRP etc.

      To my perception it is growing slowly. For the time being I am waiting for about one month for 4 new shoots to open their leaves..

      My Monthong grows tremendeously slow, only a little more than 1 inch after 5 months, and it is still in polibag. The total height is about 9 inches from bud union. The leaves look healthy with good green color if not dark green.

      The size of polibag is 11 inches tall and 9 inches wide when filled with soil. (actually I dont know polibag size) The strange thing is all grafted durian grow slowly while the seedling grows much faster and one of them have reached more than 4 feet in the same size polibag. Mind you the age of the seedling is one year younger than the grafted ones.

      So Francis, what is your comment on my clone durian growth? Is it normal to grow slow compare to seedling?

      1. This comment has been removed by the author.

      2. Your observation is correct - seedlings tend to grow faster than vegetative propagated plants, but only in the beginning.

        Plants grown from seeds start off with continuous growth but as more side shoots are formed, intermittent growth is seen. With increased branching, the interval between leaf flushes becomes longer, and generally more twigs remain at rest during a flush.

        As a rule, vegetatively propagated plants tend to grow intermittently from the start. As the branching become more complex, leaf flushing patterns will be similar to that of plants grown from seeds.

      3. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

      4. I'm very interested in finding the relatives of the cultivated durian. Do you have any tips for finding them? Last time I went to Indonesia I was heartbroken to discover that it is very hard to find native fruits of Indonesia that aren't widely commercalized.

        Sorry, I have not been to Indonesia and won't be able to help you in your quest of native fruits. May I suggest you contact the local department of agriculture, fruit sellers, village headmen etc to enlist their help. Maybe these two websites could enlighten you. Best wishes and good hunting.

    8. This comment has been removed by the author.

    9. Dear Francis

      Thanks so much for the great information on Durian seasons! Durian is my favorit food and my biggest dream is to get a land in asia and start farming it. i have a friend in thailand with Durian trees (around nakorn si tammarat), but the durian there is not quite as good as i remember it in sumatra or malaysia. do you think it is only the thai-varieties or it could also be that the climate is generally better farther south?

      Is there a Durian Orchard that you recommend visiting in Malaysia? I will pass through this sep-oct.

      Regards, Martin

      1. Different people have different views about durian aroma and taste. It's more about personal preferences and local varieties.

        The best durian trees that I have encountered grow on hilly slopes with a stream beside them.

        Penang is the best place to visit durian farms. This site should point you the way. Happy hunting and good luck:

    10. Hi Francis,
      Congratulation for putting together these resources on durian. For someone new into durian cultivation, the 'official recommended' clones don't include Musang King, Ochee, Tekka etc and this may confuse lay persons. How come popular not being recommended. As a most up to date resource site on durian, perhaps information on latest popular clones be updated. Perhaps first mention them, follows by detailed info later on. Or solicit them.

      Many clones have been registered. I've been wondering where can we find them, the likes of Tawa and Penu. Surely some of those have unique tastes that's worthy of attention if properly exposed to hard core durian lovers. Good durian cannot be just Musang King.

      Good job. Looking forward for updates

      1. Thank you for your valuable comments. I have edited the part for the cultivars or clones officially recommended by the Department of Agriculture. There are only 3 clones with full recommendations and 4 with interim recommendations for specific areas. MARDI has 3 hybrids which can be considered as good quality commercial clones. It takes at least 15 to 20 years before a durian clone can be recommended for commercial planting. It's a long and tedious process. Check out the Selangor state Department of Agriculture and Mardi at Serdang. They should be able to help you find the clones Tawa and Penu respectively.

    11. On orchard management: Different NPK ratios at different crop cycle. This calls for chemical fertilisers as they can easily be formulated as required. How to go for organic fertilizer yet satisfy the requirement?

      Foliar spray is part of fertilizing routines. Can Leaves absorp nutrients?

      Given the limited windows of flowering period, how would manual pollination is done, on orchard-wide basis, not for specific cross pollination task. Even oil palm is assisted by weevils, no longer manually done.

      1. Many local fertilizers companies have organic fertilizers specifically for fruit trees and the durian. I know a few farmers who are very happy with the results they are getting. The way to go is to try them out yourself because there are so many variables involved.

        Of course, foliar fertilizers work but you must know the basics first before you get into it. You can get a lot of info from the internet. Again, you have to try them out to get the best results. You'll be surprised to find that many diligent farmers do carry out small experiments to find solutions to their problems.

        For better fruit set, reduce chemical pests control especially during flowering and fruiting periods and practise IPM instead and plant a good mix of clones including clones which are compatible in cross-pollination e.g. D24 and D99.

    12. Thanks. Looking forward for other interesting articles on durian

    13. Dear Francis,

      I love durian and it is a pleasure to read through your blog. Could you offer advice on how to manage "two-legged" pests from taking away all my precious durians?

      1. Human pests are the most difficult to control. Having a shotgun in the farm helps. Dogs are the best deterrent. I know some farmers who have the whole family take turns camping under the trees during fruiting season to look after their assets. I know of one farmer in Perak who uses a portable electric fence to scare off intruders. It works. Maybe new technology like CCTV might work in certain situations. Employing security guards is another option if the fruits are worth far more than no guards at all.

    14. Hi Francis,

      I read the Plant Variety Protection List. Some arils were described as "berkop". What does that mean? Thanks

      1. Could I have more details where that word "berkop" is? Thank you.

    15. Hi Francis,
      Look under National list- Non-protected variety - Plant data - fruits - durian. For each variety under the subheading of "Bentuk Pangsa Buah". For e.g. D109 is "Tidak Berkop" while D113 is "Berkop". I know what is "Bentuk Pangsa Buah" but kop or not berkop is still beyond me. I think kop (or gob?) is of thai origin to mean frog? and it is used to name a few varieties such as D99 (kop kecil). But to describe the aril (or is it the locule)? If we have clear definition it helps tremendously. Thanks

      1. Hi Ghazali,
        OK, I've got the context of the word "berkop".

        In my opinion I think "berkop" is a newly coined word. I think it means "se akan kop" or "similar to kop". Kop here refers to the Thai variety "kop" or populary spelt as "kob".

        In the DOA's list for Chracteristics of Durian Varieties, that section of subtitles or labels actually refer to the fruit (buah)- its shape, colour, spines (spikes/thorns). It's not about the arils (pulp/flesh) or the locules (pangsa) that are inside the fruit.

        If you look under the DUS Test Guidelines>Fruits >Durian, under Question 20 "Fruit: clarity of line dividing sections" there are 3 indicators - absent or very weak, medium and strong - and there are examples for each indicator.

        D145 and D168 for "absent/very weak" line dividing sections; D169 for "medium" line and D7 for "strong" line dividing sections.

        D145 or Beserah has "no or weak" line, so do popular varieties such as D24 and D197.

        But D168 or Durian Emas Hj. Hasmah has a "medium" line, so is D169 Tok Litok.

        D7 has a "strong" line but I think better examples should be the "kob" group of durians such as D99 Kop Kecil, D126 Kop T24, and D127 Kop T25 which have strong dividing lines separating the fruit sections.

        It's very confusing to use "berkop" and not use these Kop varieties as "strong" examples?

        Click the "images" for the various varieties and you can check out the fruits for the lines.

        The next column in the list is also labeled as "Bentuk Pangsa Buah"- the same as the previous column. This column actually refers to DUS Question 21 - "presence of ridges along the line dividing sections". or "kepadatan permatang sepanjang pangsa". Now it becomes clear what these 2 mislabeled columns are referring to.

        My opinion is that these 2 columns are labelled inaccurately and there's where confusion sets in.

        Labeling the fruit as "berkop" or "tidak berkob" is OK if you are familiar with this particular Thai variety from the Kob group where the lines are very clear and distinct - a very prominent feature. It's very confusing if you're uninitiated and do not know what a Kob variety is.

        I hope the above explanation makes sense to you Ghazali. I've been out of touch with durian developments since I retired. The PVP website is the latest and most informative on Malaysian varieties that I've found. By the way, may I ask what is your connection with this unique fruit durian?

    16. Thanks Francis. With your connection perhaps you can point out to those responsible to clear the confusion and ambiguities, especially for information accessible to the public. In English the GUS test guideline is very clear referring to the outside of the fruit, specifically at the line where the fruit sections are joined. The Bahasa subheadings under the fruits data, in most circanstances refer to the inside of the fruit. In addition, the charateristics in the data (for these particular sections) do not follow the guideline. The guideline defines the characteristics differently. An Australian study incorporated the use of statistical tool to define the different varieties/clones.

      My initial understanding, because of the subheading, is the 'kucing tidur' type of formation, hence my reference to the aril/locule.

      Durian has been my passion. Now that I am also a pensioner, I am rehabilitating my orchard, planning to plant the latest and currently most sought after variety in place of so so kampung variety. I'd be attemping pollarding and 'cantuman dewasa' as the Teknotani termed it. (Perhaps it'd be good if your blog refers to this). In available places, of course I'm putting up those selected bud grafted planting materials.

      The physical progress is very slow. So while waiting, I am equipping and updating myself with latest know how, info, and techniques to make the venture worthwile.

    17. Thanks Francis for putting up such a comprehensive database of durian on the web. I have a small durian plot not far from you in Tras and I find your suggestion to tag the trees and build a database, pruning technique & irrigation extremely useful.
      Looks like I have much to do .....
      BTW, do you accept public to visit your orchard?

      kong weng

      1. Sorry Tham, I do not have a farm or a durian tree. The farm in Bentong belongs to my brother-in-law's friend. Visited the place a couple of times and collected some info and posted them here. This is one of the reasons I started this blog and I'm very glad you find the info useful to you. Will try to add more soon.

      2. Keep up your good work. Highly appreciated from a novice farmer. If you are visiting Bentong, please feel free to come by my orchard. YOu can write to me @

    18. Hi Francis,

      I'm Wilson, read your blog since a year ago, I was the one who ask you about legumes for durian farm.

      I'm sure you are aware that the blackthorn (orchee) durian won the 2012 Penang durian competition. So here are some questions I have for you:

      1. Is the blackthorn durian suitable for Raub- namely Tras area?

      2.How do one determine which clone is the suitable for a particular geographical area? It is said that even the musang king durian known for production consistency planted in different parts of Raub have different taste.

      3. Can one develop new clone without proper lab? I read many of the registered clones were developed by farmers themselves. Where can I learn to do this?

      1. Dear Wilson,

        1. Pahang is durian country and I'm sure any durian clones will do well in Raub. It's a matter of good management.

        Orchee is not a recommended clone as yet but Mr. Leow from Valdor, Seberang Perai Selatan has already applied for it to be registered. I believed he is the owner of Orchee because you'll need to show the mother tree and/or five matured trees derived from the mother tree for on-site varietal verification and
        tests for at least two production cycles.

        I've not seen the fruit or tasted the actual Orchee. If you're interested you should get the planting materials from Mr. Leow to ensure you're getting
        the right stuff. Any other sources will not be the same no matter what the suppliers claimed.

        2. I believed I have covered that subject in my page on "Establishing a durian orchard" especially item 7. "A Good Mix of Durian Clones or Cultivars".

        Yes, you're correct - Musang King from different areas do taste differently because there are so many "versions" of Musang King in the country. Durian growers get their plants from different suppliers and there are so many of them. With no certification and
        control, any fruit nursery supplier can claimed to have the real Musang King as it is a non-protected durian variety. In addition, fruits from different parts of the same tree very often taste differently because of the tree nutrient status and the effects of the environment.

        3. A clone durian is derived vegetatively from a mother tree and is identical to it. Most of the varieties registered with the Department of Agriculture are derived from natural chance seeding
        and then discovered and developed by the farmers themselves because of some desirable characteristics such as fruit shape, size, colour, aroma, taste and so on. Orchee is one good example.

        You don't need any special technical skill for durian selection. Just your own gut feelings and dedication to select and develop a new variety. If you have a durian tree that produces fruits different from any of the known varieties,i.e. it is a novelty, distinct and identifiable then you can register it as a new variety. You can put your name to it.

    19. Hi Francis,

      This is Ghazali again.

      The PVP raised a number of interesting issues. I've read the PVP page but don't quite get it on some practical issues. Orchee happens to be one of the clones I select to redevelop my orchard. I get my planting materials from an accredited nursery and from your response, the risk of being not genuine is still there. I come to know the owner only after reading your response. Only in name and region of domicile. Taking Orchee as an e.g. specific issues are:

      1. Is there a time limit or generational limit to the exclusivity. After planting 10 orchee clones, after 10 years time, can I reproduce and sell orchee clones from those 10 trees or is it an offence.

      2. Must the mother tree be owned by the registeree. If I discover a potential block buster deep in remote villages and reproduce it, Can I register it.


      1. Hi Ghazali,

        It's nice to hear from you again. Your orchard must have kept you very busy. But, like the saying goes "You reap what you sow" and all your hard work will eventually bear abundant fruits. Anyways, you get a lot of exercise, fresh air and sunshine, and I really miss this part right now.

        Okay. You mentioned "an accredited nursery" which is new to me. I believed this Plant Material Verification scheme started in 2010. Presently, it has about 50+ participating producers all over the country.

        It's a very good way by the department to monitor genuine and quality crop producers. However, the scheme is voluntary. It all boils down on the producers to get the trust and confidence of buyers like you. Remember, durian takes at least 5 to 6 years to start bearing fruits and you won't know what you're getting until then.

        I rather not comment on the PVP as it can be a "thorny" issue for a layman like me as I have no connection with the department anymore. Your reading and interpretation of the act is as good as mine.

        If you're really interested in PVP, get in touch with the guys handling it. The PVP website has a contact list and I think En. Esa should be able to answer all your questions. He's also a durian man.

        Good luck. Best wishes and a happy new year to you.

    20. Hi Francis

      My name is Okta.

      I'm planting my durians in Indonesia. i'm currently trouble fighting a durian disease and i'm not sure what disease it is. is it possible for you to email me? at

      Thank you

    21. Hi Okta,

      In my experience, the best persons to deal with if you have a problem with your durian trees is to contact your local agricultural extension officers, agricultural chemicals dealers or your immediate farm neighbours. They know the situation on the ground and can assess your problem more accurately and offer appropriate actions for your durian trees. Good luck.

    22. Hi Mr. Chung,

      I recently bought a seedling from a sunday market in Sabah for RM 55, the stall owner claim it was a black thorn seedling-imported from west Malaysia. Is there any way to verify the genuinity of the black thorn cultivar?cos I have never seen the leaves of a true black thorn before

      Thanks for helping.

    23. Hi Tan,

      Black Thorn or Ochee or Orchi is still under verification by DOA. A Mr. Leow Cheok Kiang from Penang has filed for registration on 15.8.2012. The only information available is that the fruit colour is reddish orange. Its shape is round. The arils are of average size with thick flesh. The flesh is creamy, sweet with a bitter taste and of fine texture (contains less fibre). Average aroma.

      Since it is not a registered variety anyone can claim to have the real thing. You'll have to wait and see what fruits you are getting 5 or 6 years from now. Hope they match the description above.

    24. Hello,

      Many many thanks for this fantastic blog; I esepcially enjoy the maps showing areas of production and calendar.Please keep it up as this is unique!

      About this, I read elsewhere that durian only start in August in the Malaysian East coast, while your information seems to indicate it already starts in July. I'm concerned because my wife, small daughter and myself are coming to Malysia in 10 days and we want to be on durian diet as much as possible. Ideally, this should happen in a beautiful and relaxing area, such as the Perhentian. Do you think there is any chance to come across fresh durian in a place like this around 25th July? If not, I'm glad you have any other advice.

    25. The maps and charts are general guides. The actual season in any place depends on many factors with the local weather playing a great part in determining the harvest. Pulau Perhentian is quite an isolated place and even if there are durians available during the end of July, there won't be much. Get help from the local people. If you're traveling by road, try the nearest town Jerteh especially in front of the market. Big towns like Kota Baru and Kuala Terengganu should have durians. The best bet is still KL as most of the fruits will eventually end up there. Good luck and happy feasting.

    26. Hi Francis,

      This is Melvin from Singapore. How are you Sir?

      May I ask for your valuable advise. My friend and I are a first year start-up as a durian seller in SG. Currently, we are actively looking for a direct source from Malaysia for the November season. We hope to find someone that can work with us and grow the business together. We are looking at top grade Mao Shan and others for instance, Golden phoenix, Green Bamboo, Sultan etc... However, we will appreciate if you can also guide us through where to find these sources, ie. Bentong, Raub, Pagor etc...

      Thank you very much. We looking forward to hear from you real soon.

      Warmest regards,
      Chua SC

      P.S Francis, how can we contact you through email?

      1. Thank you Melvin for visiting my blog. I have not been to the field for quite some time now and I really do not know what the present situation is. I know there are many big farms growing most of the popular varieties you mentioned but unfortunately I do not have connections with any of them. You should make a road trip starting from Johore Baru, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Penang and Kelantan especially to Gua Musang where the Musang King originated. You have to survey the area and see the trees personally before you commit to any business deals. For starters, I think this website is very good to get some of the information you wanted especially the links to some of the farms Rob and Lindsay had visited ( Check out Raub Durian Orchard and also the article on Tina Chong's farm at Gua Musang. Wishing you the very best of luck and success in your venture.

      2. Hi Francis, thank you so much for your information. Deeply appreciated. All the Best to you!

    27. hi, Francis. D 229 (Musang King x D 24) ??? New?

      1. D229?

        There is no such variety. Musang King or D197 was registered in 1993. The latest official entries are D198 (Kim Hong) and D199 (Bola 828) registered in March 2013 with DOA Malaysia. Both varieties are from Batu Pahat, Johor. They haven't reach the 200 number yet.

        This is one of the many gimmicks durian sellers used to get customers pay high prices for unknown durian. And the easiest and best way to do this is to tag it to the two most popular varieties in the market.

        The only hybrid durians are the MDUR clones registered in 1991-92 as D188, D189 and D190. The popular D24 is one of the donor parent and the other is D10.

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    30. Dear Sir, I am Stephen from Pahang. I have just came accross this blog. And we really salute you on your passion! As my partners and I are in the midth of starting up a fruit company, we try to include some educational elements(about fruits) into our company's culture. In another way of speaking, we will try to educate our customers or at least provide certain information when they spend at our stalls. As your blog is really informative, we would like to ask for your permission to use/share some of your materials in our future projects. Or shall we meet up so that I can explain to you more? thanks! Please feel free to contact me at 0129816083 or

      1. Hi Stephen,

        I'm glad to know you find Durian Info useful. Of course you can freely use or share the materials and information from this blog.

        Let me congratulate you and your partners in your new venture. I always believe agriculture is a very profitable business.

        Fruits production is easy when you adopt good agricultural practices. The greatest challenge is always the selling part. Your approach to educate your customers is commendable. Providing useful, accurate and timely information to customers will help you build up an appreciative and faithful clientele.

        Best wishes and great success in your fruit business. Feel free to contact me anytime here.

    31. Dear Francis,
      Thank you for your kindness! As we are building a simple database of durians species/recorded types, can you please guide us through on where to get this piece of info? Do you happen to have it? Thank you again for everything.

      1. Please refer to my blog pages on "Durian Cultivars or Clones (commonly known as durian varieties)". In this page you can find most of the information you required and also a link to "Plant Variety Protection Malaysia " website for more info.

        Also in my pages is a write-up on the website belonging to Dept. of Agriculture Malaysia. There are many useful links here and lots of info which you would have to sieve through to get what you want.

        Happy browsing and best of luck.

    32. Thank you, Francis! :) If you happen to come to Raub, please feel free to pay us a visit. My email is

      Wishing you best of health! :)

    33. Hello Francis,
      I'm Janimin from Ranau, Sabah, located at the foot of Mt Kinabalu. I've planted a mixed clones of durian trees about 15 yrs ago and most of the trees are bearing a good number of fruits every season, except for D160 (Tikar). It produce an abundant of flowers but always fail to advance to fruit stage. Your advice, please.

      1. Plenty of flowers but no fruits..that's a perennial problem face by many durian farmers everywhere.

        Janimin, there is no simple answer as there are so many factors involved whether internal or external.

        Not much research has been done on the performance of individual cultivars or varieties. The only information we have on D160 is that it was from Banting, Selangor, and was registered in June 1987 with the local name "Buluh Bawah". You called it "Tikar" while some called it "Teka".

        The fruit is large, 3 kg, oval to ellipsoid, green and rough, with short, widely spaced spines. The thin rind can be easily opened. The large aril has thick, firm, brownish-yellow, creamy sweet flesh of excellent quality.

        That's all we know about D160. So, what's next?

        Well, there are some general guidelines available on how farmers can increase the number of fruits by managing the flowering process, fruit set and fruit development right up to harvest.

        The most important internal factor is the health of the tree. Are the leaves, branches, trunk and roots competent to bear fruits?

        Then there are external factors such as weather especially rainfall and temperature, water management or irrigation, fertilizer applications, assisted pollination, natural pollinators especially fruit bats, insect pests and plant diseases, etc.

        To be successful, farmers must observe. Get to know as much as you can about your trees and the surrounding environment.

        Farmers must investigate. Find out about other farmers whose D160's are fruiting. Maybe the other durian varieties they planted are providing the compatible pollens for out-crossing of the D160. Maybe, their management practices are different from yours.

        Farmers must evaluate. Try out what others are doing that they can get D160 to bear fruits. It could be the clonal mix, the water management practices, fertilizer applications, the pests and disease controls, assisted pollination, etc.

        Do something different from what you are already doing. You may not see quick results. It may take several seasons or years. But, eventually your patience and hard work will bear fruit. Good luck.

      2. Francis, thank you very much for your invaluable advice. I'll try out your suggestions and will let you know of the outcome in due course. By the way, what's your take on Biojadi foliar fertilizer?

      3. There are many foliar fertilizers in the market and many farmers use them in their farm for various purposes. I consider them as supplements and are very useful for specific reasons. They do not and should not replace the regular dry fertilizers we use for durians. I will add a new page on this interesting topic as I see many of you are curious to know more on this subject.

        Meanwhile, follow what good farmers do - observe, investigate and evaluate. Check out farmers using "Biojadi". I'm sure they will love to share their stories. If you're interested, get the people involved to do a demonstration in your farm. Best wishes to you.

    34. Hi Francis, I am new here and I have a question for you.During flowering can we fertilise the plant and what type of manure should we use?
      I am starting to learn from you where I notice your passion toward durian is fantastic ! Ya..durian probia as myself too.

      1. Hi teh wat and welcome to DurianInfo. Flowering in durian has so many stages and the requirements differ from one to the next. The answer to your question can be found in my page on the Crop Production Cycle. See

        Like I told Janimin, to be a successful farmer one needs to observe, investigate and evaluate. There is no simple answer to everything as the durian tree is a living thing and the environment is so dynamic. I have tried to provide the basics to help the farmer understand the durian production cycle and the many things he or she needs to do to get a good crop. Many successful farmers I have met are not just growers but also researchers in their own simple way and they're usually very bold to try new ways to achieve better yields.

      2. Hi teh wat,

        I have added a page on "Foliar Fertilization or Foliar Feeding" that addresses your question on fertilizing during the flowering stage. Hope it's useful to you.

    35. hello and thank you for this wonderfull blog about Durian.Very informative.
      I wonder if you could help me on one point.I'm looking for Durian nurseries in Malaysia able to ship grafted clones to abroad.Do you know some by chance.

      Thanks again for your work

      francois jullien

      1. Hi Francois,

        That's a tall order and my straight answer is "No, I don't".

        If you had read my page on "Website - Department of Agriculture Malaysia", you would probably have found what you are looking for.

        Anyway, go back to that page and check under >Customer>Schemes & Certification>Plant Material Verification Scheme>Page 3>Publications>Bulletin Januari 2014.

        Download the bulletin and see pages 12 to 16 for a list of certified nurseries with addresses and contact numbers. Check them out.
        You might find your supplier here.

        I presumed you are well aware of the regulations and procedures for exporting plant materials overseas. You will need a phytosanitary certificate and fill up the necessary forms. You can read more about this from the same page of the DOA website.

        A good direct approach is to go to the DOA office at Putra Jaya and see a Plant Quarantine Officer. Maybe he/she knows someone who can help you. Best of luck and success.


      2. Hello Francis

        Thank you for kind answer.I asked Mardi about Malaysian clones export and they told me that it's not allowed,unless for scientific studies.


      3. Yes, that's correct. Australian researchers took a lot of Malaysian clones to their country in the 60's and 70's. I'm sure many of the Asean countries have them too. There are not many places you can grow durians.

    36. Hello Francis,

      Are you the same Francis Chung who was working at Agriculture Office Butterworth?

      Ooi Soo Guan

    37. Yes, I'm the one and only yours truly. That's way back in 1968...3 dozens and 10 years ago. We have had a wonderful time together especially 1965 - Golden Jubilee year.

    38. wow, excellent how small the world can be..!

    39. Replies
      1. Email:

        I moved to Australia 27 years ago. Now in Melbourne

    40. Dear Francis,

      Thank you for this incredible sum of informations on durian. I'm a French anthropologist, doing research on men and durians (especially on taste). I'm currently in Singapore but plan to move trough Malaysia between the 29th of june and the 10th of July.
      If I come to Taiping, would you have time to talk of the durian with me ? I would be very glad if you accept. My personal e.mail :
      Best regards, Léo

      1. Hi Leo,

        I won't be in Taiping during that period. Spending most of my time looking after my grandson in Subang Jaya. I love durian but I'm not a connoisseur like those who will travel far and wide for their favourite fruit. Only eat them whenever I can. You can contact me here.

    41. Dear Francis,

      Fort sure you Know much more than me... If you are talking of Subang Haya near KL, I will be able tout be there on thursday the 10th. If it fits you please let me know how to join you.
      Thanks a lot, Leo

    42. Hi Francis,

      I am writing to you from Singapore.

      Came across your profile and thought it to be very interesting. I would like to connect with you to have a short introduction and understand more about the Durian industry in Malaysia, hopefully discuss opportunities as well. Please drop me your contact details at or +65 9615 8800


      Kind Regards,
      Steven Ong

      1. Thanks for connecting Stephanie and Steven;

        Like I told Melvin from Singapore and Stephen from Pahang, I really do not know about the present status of the durian industry in Malaysia. I have not come across any news or reports regarding this. It's very quiet on the local scene unlike the durian industry in Thailand which is expanding by leaps and bounds. So are the ones in Indonesia and the Philippines. In fact, almost all Asean countries, except Singapore, reported new plantings. All I know is that everyone is interested in exporting frozen durian pulp to China. If you are keen, please contact FAMA. I am a techical guy and I do not know anything about the durian business. Please read my profile and the introduction. You can always contact me here. Good luck and best wishes.

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    46. Hi Francis,

      Thank you so much for sharing this resource on durian. I am new to durian cultivation as a hobby and would appreciate if you could answer a few questions:
      1) In your Pruning and Training page, it states, "...the scaffold branches should be pruned at the ends so they are about 15 to 30 cm shorter than the leader." I'm not quite sure what measurements are being considered here. Do you mean the distance from the intersection between a given scaffold branch and the central leader to the tip of that said scaffold branch should be 15-30cm shorter than from that same intersection to the tip (top) of the central leader? If you could provide me an email address, I can send you a sketch to show what I think (erroneously maybe) you're stating.
      2) What different areas on a given tree tend to have different-tasting fruits from the rest of that tree?
      3) Have you seen a durian tree with multiple varieties and have you tasted the fruits to determine if they indeed taste similar to their respective variety?
      4) According to a durian farmer in Penang, different clones have a tendency to be either "wet" or "dry". Do you know in which of those two categories the following fall under? a) D24, b) Red Prawn, c) Mao Shang Wan
      5) Given a 2 year old grafted tree with a height of 8ft, if the lowest scaffold is at 60cm from the ground, how high can I expect this scaffold to be when it reaches 10 years old?
      6) For an 8ft tall 2 year old grafted tree, how much chicken manure is safe to use and how often/how much should be applied in a year?
      7) Have you seen any advantages in using multiple rootstocks?
      8) For grafteds, is it true that the first 4-5 fruiting seasons will produce bland-tasting fruits compared to the more aged mother tree of a given cultivar?
      8b) Is this true for D24, chanee, or monthong?

      Thanks again.


      1. Hi Eric,

        As a durian probie you are in a hurry to learn everything about the durian. It's not like eating fast-food or instant noodles. Remember that anything worth doing is worth waiting for. Be patient.

        Looks like I have a pop-quiz to answer. Okay, let's start:

        1. Yes, you're incorrect. In LHTS, you select the "leader" which is the "main stem". The leader/main stem is expressed in length/height and girth/circumference. The height of the central leader or main stem or tree is from ground zero to apex or tip of top-most leaf. Pruning durian trees is not rocket science or geometry where you have a x-and-y axis. I used "scaffold" (an architectural term) for side branches because I want to build a strong and balanced frame-work (just like in construction) around the central leader. In a juvenile plant, some side branches may be more vigorous than the main stem, so I put a qualifying phrase "if necessary" prune them back 15-30cm shorter than the leader or main stem. In most cases, you don't have much pruning to do.

        2. The best fruits usually come from areas of a tree that face the sun and receive the most sunlight.

        3. I've heard about multiple varieties on a single tree. Seen mostly on mangoes. Haven't seen one yet on durian. Maybe you should do it and be the first to tell the world your achievements.

        4. I guess you already know the answers when you drafted this question. The durian is a controversial fruit. Everyone has his own opinion because taste and smell is very subjective. Durian scientists tried to standardized recording with "Aril juiciness: Juicy or Non-juicy". (see "Descriptors for Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.)" by Bioversity International, 2007). The degree of ripeness
        plays an important role on how we like our durians. Many people like the juicy ripened fruits that fell naturally from the tree while most Thais prefer the firm mature green fruits harvested from the tree. Many Thai durian varieties are just as juicy as Malaysian varieties when they are fully matured or ripe.
        (to be continued)

      2. 5. Answer: more than 60cm. Anyway, the following is the only report on durian tree growth I have. Your 2 year-old tree (8 ft or 2.4m) is considered big. The girth should be about 23cm. On the 5th year, your tree should measure about 17 ft or 5.2m and girth about 50cm. No records for 10 year-old. To determine the position of your side branch, just use simple maths to extrapolate. Answer: about 130cm. I could be wrong as there will be differences in proportions at different stages of tree growth depending on the functions of the plant parts at different ages. The environment, plant health and your TLC will determine the future.

        Remember, the main objective of having a low branch at a reasonable height is to ensure that rain water won't splash onto it for disease prevention control. Also, a low branch comes into bearing much earlier. It facilitates assisted pollination, fruit thinning and harvesting. However, it should be high enough so as it won't interfere with other farm activities or machinery working beneath it.

        6. Any kind of organic manure is good but it must be well decomposed and free from contaminants. The general recommendation is 20 kg/tree for 1st year, 30 kg/tree for 2nd and 3rd year, and 40 kg/tree from 4th year and onwards. Figures given are just estimates. Your tree health, soil status and local weather would determine how often and how much to use. A good rule-of-thumb is to add small amount at frequent intervals.

        7. No good reason to use multiple root-stocks except to give extra support to trees that have weak and thin stems or withstand strong winds. But I have seen YouTube videos depicting Indonesian farmers using this method. See links and

        Copy links and paste. Or check out my YouTube channel at Durianinfomedia and see my playlist for Graftings.

        8. Yes and no. Some trees, grafted or seedlings, take a few seasons to bear fruits normally while some trees show no such tendency. In general, fruits produced by young and old trees differ in quantity, quality, size and shape. We all know that wine taste better with age. But only for top quality wine. Cheap wine taste cheap and turn bad with age. It's the same with durian. In theory, as durian trees age, the fruits evolve into its full flavour. A quality cultivar will give you a more intense quality flavour while a mediocre one will be just as mediocre as before.

        8b. See answer above.

        I hope you're now well informed. Good luck in your durian hobby.

      3. 7. Additional info on multiple root-stocks.

        Brown's 'Durio - A Bibliographic Review' reports 'tree-legged' durian trees in Thailand that are better able to obtain food and water, and can withstand stronger winds. Old unproductive trees can also be revitalised by grafting with a young shoot on
        the trunk and then removing the original stem.

        In Malaysia, this technique is reported to be able to induce rapid flowering. Another report shows that double and triple grafted material grew more vigorously and had better fruit set than single-rootstock grafted trees.

    47. Thank you so much for your inputs! Just a very few more questions, if i may:
      1) i pruned off a small damaged branch this morning and saw a little creature that looks a little bit like one of the pests you listed in another section but not quite....maybe u recognize it?

      2) when is the "age" counted from? Our tree was grafted april 2011, was kept in lpm plastic bag til april 2013 when it was field-planted. Do u start counting starting the day it was *field-planted* or from the day it was grafted? I thought the former. I previously stated our tree was 2 years old thinking the 2 years it spent lpm plastic wud b counted as just "one"...he he he. The tree is actually closer to 9ft tall with circumference 14.5cm. Proportionally, therefore, it does seem too thin for its height... How does its size compare with others in the same age?

      3) About minimizing fruit size to minimize uneven ripening....Am i correct that one strategy to keep fruit size *minimized* is by maximizing fruit set? (I.e. Thru manual pollination and supplemental fertilization). This strategy would be relevant to large cultivars like monthong and chanee and not so much to d24. What do u think? (I know im thinking a few years ahead....ha ha)

      4) Is interstocking durian effective in minimizing disease?

      Thanks once again for your very valuable inputs!

      1. Hi Eric!

        1. Sorry, couldn't recognized it as it's still growing. Should have
        kept it safely and let it develop into an adult for easy identification.
        Maybe your colleagues at UP or the local DA extension worker can help.

        2. Technically you start counting its physiological age when the seed germinates. The time it spends (a) in the nursery bed/polybag, (b) from budding/grafting, (c) to field planting, (d) field establishment and growth, (e) to first flowering. This is the juvenile stage. The mature stage is when it starts to bear fruits.

        A diligent farmer keeps good records of all these stages to help him plan and implement his farm activities according. So, to a farmer, knowing how old is the tree is not as important as the various growth stages, its health status, and to get his harvest as soon early as he can.

        Frankly, your tree is thin and tall. Not a good durian stature. However, you can select 5 to 8 strong branches and top off your tree. Remember that durian bear fruits from its side branches, not the trunk. The more branches you have the better. The Thais practise 10 to 12 branches per tree.

        3. I like to know from where did you get this premise stated in opening sentence. I disagree with your strategy. Uneven fruit ripening (UFR) in durian are the tree responses to several interacting factors, internal or external, such as nutrition, water
        availability, and environmental conditions.

        The correct strategy is to overcome or reduce the limiting factors. Why minimized the fruit size? It's counter-productive. Small fruit weighs less, therefore less profits. Small fruits also require larger numbers to get the same targeted weight. There is more volume to handle during the packing and marketing processes thus resulting in extra labour costs and increased time taken.

        Assisted pollination is often used to maximize fruit set because many durian cultivars have poor natural fruit sets. This is usually complemented by fruit thinning to achieve full fruit growth and development, and high quality fruits.

        Your strategy won't solve the UFR problem. Instead it compound the problem with poor quality small fruits and a large volume to handle.

        4. One of the main objectives of interstocking is to secure disease resistance by use of an intermediate-stock. This technique is commonly used for apples, citrus and pears. So far, I haven't come across anyone doing this for durian. Of course you can be the first to do so. Let me show you how: you already have a durian tree (let's say a Monthong) that is grafted onto a seedling rootstock. Now, you want to change the Monthong to another variety (let's choose Chanee). You then do a new graft (Chanee) onto your Monthong. Technically, you now have 2 successive
        graftings on a rootstock. It's called double-working and composed of 3 parts: your rootstock, the interstock (Monthong) and the scion (Chanee). Does this work? We don't know unless you try it out. Are you up to it? Lots to learn and discover and only 1 durian tree to lose.

        That's it. You have too many hypothetical questions. More like a project paper or a survey. This blog is not a forum.

        I suggest you post your questions at this more appropriate site:

        You should get great responses from them.

        Bye. Ingat ka.


    48. A big THANK YOU first once again, Francis! You seem familiar with UP?
      Anyway, i will stick to answering your query (mainly for your consumption) "About minimizing fruit size to minimize uneven ripening" so feel free to remove this particular posting if you think its cluttering up your blog. I wont take it personally. :).

      About "minimizing fruit size to minimize uneven ripening". First, correct, there are other factors to ufr im aware of so this is just *one* part of my planned strategy really.
      Second, I based this part on the following observation/information:
      1-*most* fruits that ive purchased which had uneven fruit-ripening are those ~3kg or over. Ive also read elsewhere similar observation/statements.
      2-one of the purposes of fruit thinning, ive read somewhere(read so much i forget where), is to *increase* the size of the remaining fruits

      So, if fruit-thinning "increases" fruit size (ie, less fruits-->more nutrients to each fruit-->bigger fatter fruits), then "fruit-crowding"(more fruits-->less nutrients to each fruit since more of them to feed--like raising kids maybe?? Ha ha ha) will produce smaller or less large size fruits...This therefore, will hopefully address that "size" factor which appears to contribute to ufr....

      Again, i just wanted to share my thoughts on your query so feel free to remove the posting if you think its cluttering up the blog.

      Thank you again for all your knowledge-sharing!



      Bigger fruits are better for business in certain cases like for processing, but it really depends on the situation. Street vendors in singapore and malaysia, for example, i observed, tend to sell relatively small fruits less than ~2kg, which, to me, is indicative of "what sells".

      1. Hi Eric,

        This is exacting what I fear when a hypothetical question is discussed.

        This blog is not the right platform because it's only 2-sided - your opinions and mine. The discussions or arguments can go on forever without any agreements.

        The best place is a forum and I think this site would definitely meet your needs as it allows other durian growers and enthusiasts to opine about UFR:

        Please do not misunderstand my intentions. I like your comments as you're very inquisitive and assertive. The following links have relevance to UFR and should help quench your thirst for knowledge.

        Best of luck.


      2. Thank you for your additional info francis. Small request, i purchased a durian that a local farmer stated looked like "cob" which, based on what i read, is the D99. Does this indeed look like a D99? It was about 2 kg and has a very pleasant flavor and creamy texture. Reminded me a bit of d24....

    49. Hi Francis, I am posting on behalf of my dad who doesn;t write/read english. He took over the durian plantation from his brother who has been yielding quite good fruits for the past 8 years. He also started growing musang a few years ago. The trees were flowering well early this year but just recently , most of the fruits dropped prematurely so this year's harvest will be poor as there's not many left on the trees. He is keen to know the reason for premature dropping and if he can do anything to improve the situation next year/season..Will be great if you can shed some light . I can translate back to him in cantonese. He has been working hard in his durian orchard in Northern Perak but because he is illiterate, he's not accessible to a lot of resources online. Do hope you can share from your experience so that he can learn and he;ll be delighted to solve this problem and yield more fruits

      1. Hi Casey,

        Happy to know you're helping your dad in his durian farm. When you said northern Perak I would assumed it's the area from Gerik to Pengkalan Hulu where durians are mostly found. I'm not sure whether you're referring to the old trees or the young Musang King trees which had this premature fruit drop. It's quite common for young adult trees to fruit erratically. For old trees, it could be one or a combination of many factors such as tree health, environment especially rainfall and temperature, farm practices, pests and diseases, etc. Did your dad observed anything unusual happened before the fruits dropped prematurely? Too much rain? Strong winds? Very hot and dry? Did it happened in the neighbour's farm too? A successful farmer always observe, investigate and evaluate what's happening in his own farm as well as in his neighbour's farm. Many farmers use chemical sprays to manipulate premature fruit drop. See my posting on Durian - Crop Production Cycle and Orchard Management Practices. You may find the answer there. Good luck.

    50. Good info, thank you. We can eat durian flower,

    51. Hi Francis,

      don't mind repeating what many on this site have said, thanks a million for your blog.

      I am onto buying a small farm as a retirement project. This is in Raub Pahang. I intend to plants a mixture of fruit trees but the main crop will be durian as I reckon it will bring me some pocket money while the more practical reason is that I would not be able to tend to the farm on a daily basis. I will build a small cabin on the land that may even be my primary residence depending on how things pans out.

      Back to durian planting, I will appreciate some pointers from you from time to time. At the moment, I estimate that I would be able to plant about 40 trees at 33 ft spacing between trees. My first thought is to have majority of the trees to be of Musang King variety, with mix of other clones such as recommended by MARDI in your blog pages. One question for now would be about the pollinator clones like D98 and D114, may I know how would these clones improve the performance of the farm in general and how many trees of these should I have for my farm?

      Thank you for now.

      Kind regards,

      Wang SC

      1. Studies on local durian clones are lacking. We can only generalize what we already know. The use of pollinator clones would generally improve fruit set, fruit size and uniform fruit shape. MARDI recommends 50% for the D24 (in your case- Musang King) and 30 and 20% for the other pollinator clones (D98 or D99 and D114). Since there is not much done on Musang King, you will have to rely on other sources especially your durian neighbours or seedlings suppliers. They may be able to tell you the best combinations of clones to plant in your area. Wishing you best of luck in your durian venture and happy retirement.

      2. Thanks a million for the guidance. Just finalised our purchase of the little orchard in Raub. There are a dozen trees there already but of unknown varieties. Will wait for their fruits this season to determine their fate.
        My intention is to have varieties mainly for the joy of it, and to enjoy the farm life.

        Thank you again

    52. Hi Francis,

      My name is Florencia and I was wondering if you had more information about grafting Durian trees. For your information, my dad has acquired some land with durian trees. It was neglected so it has only produced fruit in the last couple of years. However only some of the trees produce good quality fruit.

      To improve the quality of the rest of the trees, we were thinking of grafting those on to the rootstock of the ones with lower quality fruit.

      Would you be able to give us pointers regarding:
      When we should start grafting? Considering our trees fruit in Dec - Feb (March)
      How should we graft?
      What type of grafting wax should we use?

      Any other resources on this topic would be much appreciated.

      Thanks so much,


      1. Hi Florencia,

        I have created a new page on "Durian Grafting" where you will find several videos on durian grafting that are posted on YouTube. I will post some technical information later. Meanwhile I suggest you get in touch with the local Department of Agriculture for assistance. They can give you advice and also practical training on how to do grafting. Good luck.

    53. Performing online search helps you explore a large number of companies offering quality tree pruning equipment.

      Pole Saw Demo Videos

      1. There are lots of companies selling pruning equipment. Your choice.

    54. Hello there Francis!

      We finally have a durian tree flowering--a grand total of 3 buds!!! ha ha. I intend to hand-pollinate these if ever they reach that stage. I plan to collect pollen from another tree (which I hope to find as there arent many durian trees in our area at all likely much less flowering at this time) and use them in the following 2-3 nights to pollinate our flowers. My initial question is pollen viability, how many hours/days is it viable for and what is the best way to collect/store them, if at all possible? Thanks in advance. I think this info including hand pollination references would be very helpful in your blogspot somewhere...but maybe it's already there and I just havent found it. Thanks in advance.

      1. I don't think you read my blog as all the information you need is in there. If you want specific answers, you will have to do your homework. A simple search for "assisted pollination of durian" has 7,580 results. Happy hunting and good luck in your project.

    55. On this page, what diameter is the "fish-egg size" bud that you refer to to indicate when to increase water? Please feel free to just edit the said page (and delete this post) to be more specific as I've seen fish eggs between 2mm to 8mm (salmon). Thanks again! ....and thank you for the tip on your last post..."assisted" vs "hand" pollination gave some fresh results!

    56. Dear Mr Francis Chung,

      I would like to sincerely thank you for your kindness by sharing your experience with us. I just bought a small fruit orchard about 2.5 acres in Ijok, K Selangor. The orchard has about 40 durian trees which are more than 10 years old. I notice about 10 trees have alot of dry branches up to the top of the tree. When I started pruning the dry branches, I notice the branch start drying from the tip.

      I also notice there are white ants in the orchard and the ants already make nest in the tree trunks.

      Can you please advise me what I should do. I have clear the undergrowth and added 2kg of organic fertilizer per tree. Unfortunately, the has been little rain during the last one month.

      Thank you.


      1. Hi Lum,

        "White ants' or termites can be a problematic pest in a durian orchard. You should take immediate action to get rid of them before they spread to the other trees. I have put up a new page for termites control where you can find all the necessary information to help you control them. Contact your local agricultural extension worker or chemical salesman to help you if you do not know how to do it. Good luck and happy durian farming.

      2. Dear Mr Francis,

        Your new page on termites control is most useful. I am studying the section carefully. Actually, I have consulted a agri chemical retail shop and they propose I use Fadusan which I have done so. I intend to consult Pest control or Rentokil to get their opinion too. Thanks for your advice.


      3. Hi Lum,

        Good to know you are taking quick action on your termites control. My termites control page is more for general information and includes links to some of the sites which deal directly or indirectly on the subject. I would appreciate it very much if you could send me some photos to be included in the page. Thank you and wish you every success in your durian venture.

    57. Hello Uncle Francis,

      Your blog is absolutely wonderful. So informative and full of diagrams and pictures. Thank you so much for the time and effort in sharing your knowledge.

      1. Hi Eric,

        Thank you for your kind comments. I hope you've found the information you needed. Do come back and visit.

    58. Seed sowing while still fresh; if necessary short-term storage, seeds should not be allowed to dry.
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    59. Hello Uncle Francis
      My name is SengKea
      I recently read many articles about growing durian, some are from your blog and other from randomly websites. I'm kinda a bit confusing about grafted durian and seedling durian. Most of information that I got from online, it seems not very well explained. People said "Growing durian from seeds will not get the true varieties, Ex: Musung King" I understand this but my question are, How will it be different? Will it be completely different from their mother's varietie? Will the fruit look different? Will it become brand new another variety?
      Will fruit look the same as their mother but just change taste or flavor?

    60. Hi SengKea,

      Very good question SengKea. Basically, you asked what kind of durian do you get if you plant a seed from a Musang King fruit? Obviously, you can't call it a Musang King. Let's try answering that question with some simple hereditary principles. Your new durian has only 50% maternal material of Musang King and the other 50% paternal material is unknown. Durian is cross-pollinated and so the pollens must come from another durian variety other than Musang King. So how would your off-springs look like? At least half the characteristics will come from the mother Musang King. The other half ..... new characteristics. If these are more superior than the original MK than you can select it and call it a new variety.

    61. Thank you so much, I feel like, I can breath right now. I've been looking for someone who can answer this question to me for years, I finally understand it. I also got more questions for you, it's possible that grafted durian tree giving fruit in three years? Some of my 3 and a half year old durian tree, trunk and branches is not very big but they giving fruit like crazy, 20fruits from what I remembered. it's bad for tree if I let's it be? or I have to cut off some fruits?

      1. Hi SengKea,

        You must be taking very good care of your durian trees. Many trees planted from advanced planting materials usually tend to fruit at a very young age. If the tree is healthy and strong - let it be. Read my article on "Pruning and Training The Durian" especially "Pruning to Control Canopy of Durian (Thai technology)". It will show you how to manage your young durian trees for maximum fruiting. Good luck.

    62. "Even if the female and male flower parts of durian flowers are active at the same time, most durian trees have a high degree of self-incompatibility. In other words, the flowers must be cross-pollinated from other durian trees in order to set fruit.", When you said "Other durian trees" Do you mean other durian trees with same variety or other tree with different varieties ?

    63. I watched Hand pollination, I'm not quite understand.
      Can you tell me step by step how to hand-pollination durian.
      How to indentify male and female durian flowers?
      What time when the pollens release and where would the pollens go to make pollination happen? I'm so confuse.

      1. The stigma is the female part of the flower while the anthers comprising the stamens and pollens are the male parts.

        Flowers usually opened around 4.00 to 4.30pm. Stigma becomes active but stamens only release the pollens around 7.30 - 8.00p.m.

        In hand cross-pollination, the anthers are removed with sharp scissors before the stamens opened to release the pollens. The dehisced anthers containing fresh pollens (which was collected earlier) from another variety e.g. Monthong are then rubbed directly onto the stigma of the durian flower.

        In nature, fruit bats (especially Eonycteris spelaea) are the most important pollinators of durian. The giant honey bee (Apis dorsata) is the most frequent visitor to durian flowers.

    64. Hi! Francis, its very good to have your blog in assisting the durian Industries. I have aquired a Land and intention to plant the musang king, but I need a specialist to assist, Would you have some one to introduce or can I have you as my adviser? tq

      1. Hi huanxiang,

        Congrats and very happy to know you are going to be a durian planter. Don't worry, almost everyone around you is a specialist...especially the guy who sold you the land, the nurseryman, the fertilizers/chemicals salemen, your farm neighbours etc. Just post your queries here and I am sure a lot of readers can help out. Waiting to hear from you soon. Happy farming.

    65. Hi Francis, I am seeking for a durian expert to conduct training on Durian A-Z to my colleagues. Would you be interested in this?

      1. Hi Jing Yi Kong,

        Thank you very much for your kind offer. I'm not a durian expert and I don't think I am qualified for the task as I have not kept myself current with durian development since I retired.

        I guess you're from a big corporation and your colleagues have tertiary or professional training. Anyone of you can read and educate himself/herself on all the durian articles I have posted. To be a true durian expert, you have to get close to and personal with the durian tree. Your company has lots of fertilizers and agricultural chemicals. Do your practicals in the field and see how the durian reacts to them. After 2 or 3 seasons you'll all be experts on the durian and your company products too. Have fun and good luck.

      2. We are basically looking at giving basic agronomy training for sales colleagues in order to improve their confidence when conducting practical field work. Thank you for the reply and your blog is of great knowledge to me.

    66. Good evening Francis, may I know is there a dwartf size musang king tree available in the market?

      1. I would think so as dwarf trees of many fruit trees are freely available. You will have to scout around among the nurseries to find what you want or you can try to do it. Other tha breeding hybrids, grafting is the usual method to get dwarf trees.

    67. Wow! What a good information are there in it.Fresh Direct Coupon

    68. Francis. D229 is the combination of D24 & Musang King? If yes, Will it better than normal Musang King?

      1. There is No such variety as D229. This question was raised in November 2013. DOA Malaysia has a durian list ending in D200 for clone Black Thorn registered on 15 June 2015.

    69. Dear Francis , thanks v much for your v informative blog.
      I have a small plantation of durians and as I am based in singapore, I didn't have the time to look into the technical aspects of maintaining a durian Orchard. As a result quite a number of the trees are already nearly 20 years old and not fruiting still. The Orchard is 50% musang King , and the rest a variety of 9 other types of cultivars.
      My question on pruning of trees - some of the trees are almost 50-60 feet Tall. Based on your blog advice , you mentioned that for mature trees , it is recommended to TOP it to around 7-8metres for easier maintenance etc. That is about 25ft. Half the current height of the mature trees. Some of them don't even have branches until 20-30 feet above ground.
      1.How would you advise to prune and TOP such tall trees ? In stages and over a few years?
      2. How much to TOP each time if so?
      3. Is it advisable then to TOP them to the recommended height of 7-8m if they are already so mature? After pruning , the trees would become very "botak". Is that ok?
      I feel that since the trees already have no been fruiting after so many years , I would want to experiment on topping and pruning some of these unproductive trees as there is no loss anyway.
      I hope to hear from you.

    70. Dear Francis ,
      Apologies if I am repeating my question, as I do not know if my last question was posted to you. Basically I have a durian Orchard and some trees are around 20 years old and unproductive without fruits . They are as tall as 50-60 feet high.
      I would like some advice - as your blog recommended mature trees to be topped to around 7-8m, which is about 25ft high. This is about half the height of my older trees.
      1. Is it advisable to TOP them to 7-8m when they are already so tall?
      2. If so, how much should I cut off the TOP at each time? I know you said not more than 30% of the wood. Does it mean only 30% of 50 feet per year I should slowly do them in stages ?
      3 some of my old trees have lower branches already 20 feet from the ground. Would it then be advisable to TOP these trees ? Would it be better just to use them as root stock and re graft and start afresh?
      My Orchard is 50% musang King , and the rest a variety of 9-10 other cultivars. These were randomly planted by my Uncle without scientific basis. My other question is - does it matter how they are planted for cross pollination? Like if one side of the Orchard is all musang and the other half is all the other cultivars ? Or is it better to mix and intersperse the different cultivators together ?

    71. Hi Sumosumo,

      You have neglected your durian trees when they were young. Now they are all big and grown up. Basically they are like wild durian growing in the jungle and you cannot expect to reap profits like you do for a commercial farm. I have given all the information you need in my blog. The other approach to solve your problem is to get some really practical help from other planters or professional care-givers. Check out my page on Durian Grafting. You may find some contacts: